William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347), Medieval philosopher
The term, “Occam’s Razor” ( or Ockham’s Razor) refers to distinguishing between two hypotheses, either by “shaving away” unnecessary assumptions or cutting apart two similar conclusions.
Ockham did not invent this principle, but the “razor”—and its association with him—may be due to the frequency and effectiveness with which he used it. Ockham stated the principle in various ways, but the most popular version is “Entities are not to be multiplied without necessity.”
Phrases such as “It is vain to do with more what can be done with fewer” and “A plurality is not to be posited without necessity” were commonplace in 13th-century scholastic writing.
The razor’s statement is basically: “Other things being equal, simpler explanations are generally better than more complex ones.”
This information on Occam’s Razor is derived from : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam’s_razor#William_of_Ockham